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Evolution has favored a gene causing decreased height and increased arthritis risk

60,000 years ago, when humans were migrating northward from Africa into colder climates, a single-letter DNA switch–from a G to an A–proved to help humans brave more frigid temperatures. Stanford University researchers have found, however, that this genetic change has also brought decreased height and resulted in increased risk of arthritis 1.3 to 1.8-fold in Eurasian populations.